By Dennis Thompson
THURSDAY, Nov. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) — Lack of hydration may be a commonplace enemy for perseverance athletes, and one that will be on the minds of each member in Sunday’s New York City Marathon.
But did you know that drinking too much water can be possibly lethal, particularly in the event that not treated properly?
And you do not got to be an tip top competitor like a marathoner to fall victim to what specialists call water intoxication.
Water intoxication occurs when a individual has devoured so much water that the salt levels within the blood become weakened, said Dr. Aaron Baggish, co-medical executive of the Boston Marathon.
“When sodium [salt] concentrations are moo within the blood, it really allows water to leak out of the blood into the other tissues,” a condition known as hyponatremia, included Baggish, who’s moreover associate director of the Cardiovascular Execution Program at the Massachusetts General Hospital Heart Center.
The brain appears to be the organ most affected by hyponatremia, and starts to swell as water leaks out of blood and into brain cells, he said.
Usually, the indications are mellow, such as perplexity, migraine and queasiness. But on the off chance that cleared out untreated, individuals might wind up enduring seizures, Baggish said.
Within the most noticeably awful cases, the brain continues to swell wildly, resulting in a possibly fatal condition called brain stem herniation, he said.
“The brain is delicate tissue that’s contained in a fixed cranium. When the brain swells, there’s only one real way it can go as an exit path, and that’s down to the bottom of the cranium where there’s a gap that connects the brain to the spinal cord,” Baggish said.
Death from water inebriation is exceptionally rare among competitors like marathon runners, said Dr. William Roberts, a former president of the American College of Sports Medication.
“We’ve famous maybe a half dozen deaths out of likely 3 or 4 million finishers, so it’s not an awfully common cause of casualty,” said Roberts, who’s also a professor with the University of Minnesota’s Office of Family Pharmaceutical and Community Wellbeing. Marathon runners are more likely to kick the bucket from a heart attack or heat stroke, he said.
Sports medication doctors are much more likely to see cases of water intoxication or hyponatremia than family practitioners, Baggish said.
“In the event that you’re in a marathon tent or an Ironman tent, you may see a fair bit of it,” he said. “If you’re in a schedule office hone, it won’t come over your radar screen. But, anyone who works with athletes within the setting of long-distance endurance sports will see it from time to time.”
But continuance athletes aren’t the as it were ones at chance of water intoxication.
A 17-year-old tall school football player in Georgia kicked the bucket in 2014 after consuming as well much liquid amid practice. A 47-year-old British lady died from drinking as well much water whereas hiking the Grand Canyon in 2008. And a 28-year-old California lady died of water inebriation after taking portion in a radio station’s water-drinking challenge in 2007 to win a video amusement.
Earlier this year, a 27-year-old man named Andrew Schlater kicked the bucket from hyponatremia while within the middle of a fluid cleanse, or detoxification, without medical supervision, said his father, Frank Schlater of Rowayton, Conn.
For a number of days, Schlater’s parents had taken note him drinking a part more water than normal. Andrew seemed fine, and shrugged off his parents’ requests to halt drinking so much water.
But, early one morning in July, Straight to the point Schlater found his child within the family’s kitchen, tasting a few water. Inside minutes, Andrew collapsed on the floor. He was rushed to the hospital but kicked the bucket several hours afterward, due to brain herniation.
“You fair can’t envision water would hurt you,” Straight to the point Schlater said. “You hear that as well much water can be bad for you, but you don’t know how to weigh that.”
Others at hazard of hyponatremia: Older people who take diuretics and have reduced kidney function, said Roberts.
Marathoners most at risk of water intoxication tend to be those out on the course for longer periods of time, Roberts noted.
“Slower runners have more time to drink water,” he said. “On the off chance that you’re out there for six hours, strolling through water stops and drinking more than you need you’ll end up in this circumstance.”
Taking in salt or sodium amid a race can help decrease the risk of hyponatremia, said Dr. Robert Glatter, an crisis doctor with Lenox Hill Clinic in Modern York City. For example, athletes can expend sports drinks containing electrolytes, he said.
Roberts and Baggish offer two pieces of advice for perseverance athletes who need to maintain a strategic distance from water inebriation:
Drink when you’re parched, not before. “You ought to be drinking in case you feel gently parched, but in the event that you’re not parched there’s no point to pound water because it’s not reaching to make you perform way better,” Baggish said. Figure out your water-loss rate some time recently your occasion. Weigh yourself while bare, go out for an hour’s run, and a short time later weigh yourself again. “That gives you an thought how much fluid you misplaced,” Roberts said. “Plan on drinking about that much during your occasion.”
And what almost the non-endurance competitor. How much water does the average individual need each day?
There’s no one-size-fits-all rule. But, the Institute of Pharmaceutical suggests that men consume approximately 13 mugs (3 liters) of liquids a day. For ladies, the recommendation is approximately 9 cups (2.2 liters).
But, the Mayo Clinic notes that it’s best to think in terms of “fluid” consumption each day, not “water” utilization, because all fluids number toward the daily add up to, as do liquids found in foods.